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Universal Set

Operations on Sets

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Introduction to Motion

Graphical Representation of Motion

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Atoms and Molecules

Laws Of Chemical Combination And Dalton's Atomic Theory

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Introduction to Cell

Cell Structure

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Size and Location

Climate of India

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The First World War

Growth of Nation-States in Europe

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The Making of Indian Constitution And The Constituent Assembly

Guiding Values And Philosophy Of The Indian Constitution - The Preamble

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English Grammar

Sentence - Introduction

Simple and Compound Sentences

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English Writing Skills

Notice Writing - Format and Sample

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  • Vocabulary



  • Parallelogram


    parallelogram is a 4-sided shape formed by two pairs of parallel lines. Opposite sides are equal in length and opposite angles are equal in measure. To find the area of a parallelogram, multiply the base by the height.

    i.e A = bh
    where A = area;
              b  =  base;
              h = height.

  • Q


      The air density and air pressure changes with altitude (the distance above sea level)Temperature increases as you gain altitude in the stratosphere 

  • Q

    Each chloroplast is bounded by two unit membranes. It consists of two distinct regions - grana and stroma.

  • In angle ABC m angle A, B, C =3:5:7.Then,find the measure of all angle of the triangle.


    Let ∠A, ∠B and ∠C are 3x, 5x and 7x then
    3x+5x+7x = 180°
    15x = 180°
    x = 12
    ∠A = 3x = 36°
    ∠B = 5x = 60°
    ∠C = 7x = 84°

  • Discuss the factors affecting the climate


    Elevation refers to the distance above or below sea level. The higher the elevation of a region, the colder it is. Even a location near the equator, such as Mt. Kilimanjaro in Africa, can have cold temperatures if its elevation is high enough.

    Latitude refers to distance from the equator. The equator and tropical areas get more direct sunlight than areas to the north or south. The more direct sunlight received, the warmer the climate, which is why the poles are colder than the equator.

    Warm air rising in the tropics causes cool air to be drawn from the surrounding areas, creating trade winds that blow in subtropical regions. Some of the air mass is drawn away from the equator toward the poles. These air masses create winds that help set weather patterns and determine a location's climate.

    Earth’s rotation, surface winds and the Coriolis force create the surface currents of oceans. Under the influence of the trade winds, warm water near the equator flows from east to west. The Coriolis effect causes water to be deflected northward away from the equator and sets up a rotational cycle in the oceans, making currents flow clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counter-clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. As currents reach the poles, the water cools and sinks. The temperature of these currents affects the climate of surrounding areas.

    Proximity to oceans is an important factor in an area's climate because oceans moderate climates by storing heat. Because it is a fluid, the ocean diffuses the effects of a temperature change for great distances through vertical mixing and convective movements.

  • Formula of accleration



    It is a measure of how quickly the velocity of an object changes. So, the acceleration is the change in the velocity, divided by the time.

  • What is line


    A line is a breadthless length.

  • connectors


    A connector is a word that is used to join words or sentences.

    And, as well as, but, or, yet, nevertheless, however, so that, as long as, while, until, as if, because, when, after, though, before.

    • A boy and a girl
    • An elephant and a giraffe
    • A toy or a book
    • The music was loud nevertheless it was enjoyable.
    • Types of connectors

    Coordinating conjunctions

    Coordinating conjunctions join together clauses of equal importance.

    Some examples of coordinating conjunctions are - and, but, or,

    Use of 'and'

    'And' is used as a conjunction when the words or phrases are of equal importance and both conditions exist. Other words that can be used in place of and are: moreover, in addition to, along with, plus, as well as, further more

    • Tom and Harry play hockey.
    • A lion and a fox live in this cave.
    • We need some gloves and a ball in addition to bats.
    • The soldiers rose moreover they cheered the leader.
    • We found the thief along with the bags.
    • The gurgling stream along with the howling wind added to the charm of the place.

    Use of 'but'

    The conjunction 'but' is used to show a contradiction between two phrases. Let's say the first phrase leads you to expect a certain event and the second phrase tells you quite a contradictory outcome. In such an event, but, is used.

    Other words like: nevertheless, yet, however, can be used in place of 'but'

    • He ran, but he missed the bus.
    • She studied hard but could not score well in the test.
    • The hill was very steep but the old man could climb it easily.
    • Sharon fell from the horse nevertheless she did not cry.
    • The lion was hungry yet it did not attack Androcles.
    • He is from England however he speaks Chinese very well.

    Use of 'Or'

    When we need to express a choice between two words or phrases we use 'or'. Here only one of the two conditions exists.


    Would you take a cup of tea or coffee?

    Shall we buy a book or a toy?

    Sit on the bench or on the grass.

    Are you tired or shall we go out for a walk?

    We can learn to talk English or we can depend on sign language.

    Correlative conjunctions:

    Conjunctions used in pairs are correlative conjunctions

    Either..... or Either Peter or John has taken the book.
    Neither.....nor It is neither hot nor tasty.
    Both.....and My sister is both smart and intelligent.
    Whether..... or Tell me whether you know the route or not.
    Not only..... but also Not only is she stupid but also stubborn.

    Compound conjunctions

    Compound conjunctions are groups of words that behave like conjunctions.

    In order that, on condition that, provided that, as soon as
    Conjunction Usage
    In order that I bought all the books in order that you may study
    On condition that The teacher excused him on condition that he would not repeat the mistake.
    Even if Sarah would not marry him even if he proposed to her.
    So that I kept away my work so that I could spend time with my daughters
    Provided that You can take leave provided that you work overtime later
    As though Rex behaves as though he is the boss.
    As well as Monica as well as veronica was present there
    As soon as Mr. Ford plans to pay off his loan as soon as he gets his bonus.
    As if It looks as if there is going to be a storm.

    Subordinating conjunction

    A subordinating conjunction joins a clause to another on which it depends for its full meaning. The chief subordinating conjunctions are after, because, if, that, though, although, till, before, unless.

    • I will not go to the market if it rains.
    • The situation 'I will not go to the market' is dependant on the condition 'if it rains'.
    • You could go and play after you have done the dishes.
    • King Midas was unhappy because his daughter turned to gold.
    • You must dig the earth till you find water.

    Observe the use of connectors in these sentences.

    • Lydia likes to sing and dance when she is happy.
    • We can paint our house red or white but we must select a good painter.
    • Harry is intelligent however he is lazy. He must wake up or he will regret it.
    • I left the party because I was bored, moreover it was quite late.
    • He was sad and tired along with being very hungry when a wizard appeared and offered him food however he laid down some conditions.
    • He is cheerful though he has worked the whole day.
    • I allowed him in as I thought he was a friend but he tried to rob me.
    • You will do well if you study hard.
    • My daughters either watch TV or sleep on Sundays.
    • Susan is very fat but very active.
    • I met by friend in the park and invited her to tea.
    • A student must obey or he may leave.
    • Jane and Peter have been chosen to receive the guest.
    • After the trip Sam came to work but he was very tired.
    • Bring some sandwiches or you will be hungry.
    • They jumped over the stream and ran home.
    • The dog ran after the rabbit but could not catch him.
    • My aunt is ill so I will visit her tomorrow.
    • The show started as soon as the chief guest arrived.
    • You will enjoy the concert since you love music.
    • This horse will take you to the village you even if he is tired.
    • He was rowing the boat while I slept.
    • The bridge fell though it was made of stones.
    • You will pass if you work hard.
    • He will not try unless he is forced to.
    • We will come after we complete the work.
    • The old man cared for the puppy as though she was his baby.

  • identify diseases


    When there is a disease, either the functioning or the appearance of one or more systems of the body will change and gives rise to symptoms and signs of disease. Symptoms of disease are the things we feel as being ‘wrong’ like headache, cough or loose motions. These indicate that there may be a disease, but they don’t indicate what the disease is.



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