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Types of Mixtures

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Types of Mixtures - Lesson Summary

Mixture - Classification
Mixtures are classified into homogeneous and heterogeneous types.

Homogeneous mixture
A mixture in which various constituents are mixed uniformly is called homogeneous mixture.
 Example: Air, Alloy, Solution of salt in water.

Heterogeneous mixture
A mixture that is not uniform throughout is called a heterogeneous mixture.
Example: A mixture of sugar and salt is a heterogeneous mixture.

Differences between a mixture and a compound

                            Mixture                             Compound It consists of two or more substances which may be elements, compounds or both mixed together physically in any proportion, but not chemically combined. It consists of two or more elements that are chemically combined in a fixed proportion. It may be homogeneous or heterogeneous It is always homogeneous The parts of a mixture can be separated by physical means. The components of a compound cannot be separated by physical methods but they can be separated by chemical and electrochemical methods Each component of a mixture retains its individual properties. A compound has a distinct set of properties which is not similar with the properties of its constituent elements.    Energy is neither given out nor absorbed in the preparation of a mixture. Heat is taken in or given out in the preparation of a compound. A mixture does not have a sharp melting or boiling point. A compound has a sharp melting and boiling point.  


Solution
A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.

Component of the solution
A solution has two components. The component of a solution that is present in larger quantity is called the solvent and the component present in smaller quantity is called as a solute.
Solvent +Solute = Solution
Example: Tincture Iodine. In tincture of iodine, the iodine is the solute and alcohol is the solvent. 

Types of solution
Depending on the physical state of solute and solvent, different types of solutions can be formed.

Solid in solid solution
When solid solute is mixed in solid solvent solid-solid solution will formed.
Example: Alloys.

Solid in liquid solution
When solid solute is mixed in liquid solvent solid-liquid solution will formed.
Example: Tincture of iodine

Gas in liquid solution
When a gas solute is mixed in liquid solvent gas-liquid solution will form.
Example: Aerated Drinks

Gas in Gas solution
When a gas solute is mixed with gas solvent gas-gas solution will form.
Example: Air

Properties of a solution

  • Homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.
  • Particles of a solution are smaller than 1 nm in diameter. Hence, they cannot be seen with the naked eye.
  • When a beam of light directed through a solution it is not visible. Since the particles in a solution are very small, they do not scatter a beam of light passing through the solution.
  • The solute particles cannot be separated from the mixture by filtration or by any physical means.
  • Solute particles in a solution do not settle down when left undisturbed.


Concentration of a solution
The amount of solute present per unit volume of the solution is known as the concentration of a solution.

Dilute solution
A solution that contains a relatively smaller quantity of solute as compared to the solvent is known as a dilute solution.

Concentrated solution
A solution that contains a relatively larger quantity of solute as compared to the solvent is known as a concentrated solution.
The concentration of a solution can be expressed using two methods

Mass by mass percentage of a solution
Mass by mass % of a solution refers to the mass of solute present per 100 g of the solution.
Mass by mass % of a solution = Mass of solute / Mass of solution x 100.

Mass by volume percentage of a solution
Mass by volume % of a solution refers to the mass of solute present per 100 mL of the solution.
Mass by volume % of a solution = Mass of solute / Volume of solution x 100.
Depending on the amount of solute present in the solution, solutions can be classified into saturated, unsaturated or super saturated.

Saturated solution
A solution which will not dissolve any more solute is called a saturated solution.

Unsaturated solution
A solution in which more of the solute will dissolve is called an unsaturated solution.

Super saturated solution
A solution which contains more dissolved solute than could be dissolved by the solvent under normal conditions is called super saturated solution.

Solubility
Solubility can be defined as the maximum amount of solute by weight in grams dissolved in 100 grams of solvent at a constant temperature.

Suspensions
A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture in which the solute particles do not dissolve and remain suspended throughout the solvent. The solute particles can be seen with the naked eye.
Example: milk of magnesia, sand in water and flour in water.

Properties of a Suspension

  • A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture.
  • The particles of a suspension are quite large, it is about 10 -7m and they scatter a beam of light passing through the suspension and make its path visible.
  • A suspension is unstable. When a suspension is left undisturbed, its solute particles settle down at the bottom of the container.
  • The solute in a suspension can be separated from the mixture by the process of filtration.


Colloidal solution
A colloid is a heterogeneous mixture in which the particles cannot be seen with the naked eye.

Properties of a Colloid

  • A colloid seems to be homogeneous. But actually, it is a heterogeneous mixture.
  • The particles of a colloid are very small and cannot be seen with the naked eye.
  • The particles in a colloid do not settle down when left undisturbed. This shows the stable nature of the colloid.
  • Colloids can scatter a beam of light and make its path visible.
  • Particles in a colloid cannot be separated from the mixture by the process of filtration.


Components of a colloidal solution
A colloidal solution has two components the dispersed phase and the dispersing medium.

Dispersed phase
The solute-like component or the dispersed particles in a colloid form the dispersed phase.

Dispersing medium
The component in which the dispersed phase is suspended is known as the dispersing medium.

We can classify a colloid according to the state of the dispersing medium and the dispersed phase.

Colloidal solution - Types

   Dispersed Phase
   Dispersing Medium
         Type
           Example
Liquid
Gas
Aerosol
Fog, Clouds, Mist
Solid
Gas
Aerosol
Smoke, Automobile Exhaust
Gas
Liquid
Foam
Shaving Cream
Gas
Solid
Foam
Foam Rubber, Sponge, Pumice Stone
Liquid
Liquid
Emulsion
Milk, Face Cream, Cod Liver Oil
Solid
Liquid
Sol
Starch Solution, Gold Sol, Milk of Magnesia, Mud
Solid
Solid
Solid Sol
Ruby Glass
Liquid
Solid
Gel
Jelly, Curd, Cheese, Butter


Tyndall effect
When a beam of light passes through a true solution, there is no scattering, and the path of light cannot be traced.

When a beam of light is allowed to pass through a colloid, it gets scattered by the colloidal particles, and the path of the light can be traced.

The path of light gets illuminated with a bluish light. This phenomenon of scattering of light by colloidal particles is called the Tyndall effect. The illuminated, bright cone of light is called the Tyndall cone.



Brownian movement
The continuous zig-zag movement of colloidal particles in a dispersion medium is called Brownian movement.

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