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Animal Husbandry

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Animal Husbandry - Lesson Summary

Animal husbandry
Animal husbandry is the practice employed to increase the production of animal products by livestock. Animal husbandry includes feeding, breeding, and disease control of livestock animals.



Advantages of animal husbandry:
As animal husbandry is scientific management of farm animals, it serves many uses for human beings.
    •  It helps in enhancing milk production
    •  It increases egg production
    •  It increases meat production
    •  It increases fish production
    •  It helps in proper management of agricultural wastes.

Cattle farming:
A cattle farming is the practice of rearing cattle by providing facilities for raising livestock.
Livestock includes domestication of cows, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs etc. A cattle farming is carried out to raise cows and buffaloes as important livestock. The two major species of Indian cattle are Bosindicus, or cows, and Bosbubalis, or buffaloes.

Milch animals and drought animals
On basis of their utility, cattle are classified into two types namely milch animals and drought animals.
    •  Milch animals or dairy animals produce milk. Males of this type are not useful for working on farm.
    •  Draught animals are used for carrying out agricultural work like tilling, irrigation and carting. Cows belonging to this category are poor milk-yielding varieties.

Management practices for cattle farming
Management practices for cattle include cleaning, sheltering and feeding.
a) Cleaning involves periodic washing to get rid of dirt and loose hair.
b) Shelter facilities include well ventilated roof sheds which protect cattle from rain, cold and sun.
c) Feeding of cattle includes supply of uncontaminated and balanced diet. Animal feed are of two types namely roughage feed and concentrate feed.
    •  Roughage feed contains high fibre content and provides energy. It comprises fodder grasses, silage and legumes rich in fibre.
    •  Concentrate feed is a mixture of cereals, seeds and oilseed cake rich in protein content. This type of feed is easily digestible and it helps the animal in increasing body weight.
d) Cattle should be protected from diseases. Diseases in cattle are caused by both external and internal parasites. External parasites live on the skin and cause skin diseases. Internal parasites affect the stomach and intestinal parts. Certain preventive measures of diseases in animals are listed.
    •  Proper disposal of dead animals and animal wastes.
    •  Shelters should be clean, dry and well ventilated.
    •  Periodic visit of veterinary physician to check the animals.
    •  Hygienic management of animals and animal products.
e) Infectious diseases are caused by pathogens like bacteria, viruses and fungi. Sheds should be cleaned and disinfected regularly. Vaccination against various diseases should be provided to farm animals. Vaccination should be given against various diseases.



f) Milk production centres should be maintained for the animals which give birth to young ones. Milk production depends on duration of lactation period. Lactation period is the period following the birth of a calf during which milk is produced by the animal. Lactation period can be enhanced by administering certain hormonal injections.

g) Cross-breeding is done between foreign and local breeds of animals to facilitate the growth of animals with desired qualities. e.g. Foreign breed like Jersey cow, with long lactation period, is crossed with local breed like Red Sindhi cow, with high resistance to disease, to obtain offspring of desired qualities like long lactation period and high resistance to diseases.

Advantages of cross-breeding
Cross-breeding helps in the development of certain desired characteristics in animals.
    •  To increase milk production
    •  To increase resistance against diseases.
    •  To enhance the varieties with longer lactation period.
    •  To rely on less amount of quality feed.

Poultry farming:
Poultry farming is the practice of raising fowl for egg production and chicken meat. Fowls are used for producing eggs and broilers are used for producing meat.

Cross –breeding is common in poultry to develop new varieties with the desirable traits. e.g Indian breed Aseel is cross-bred with the foreign breed Leghorn.

Cross-breeding is used to develop offspring with desirable traits. The desirable traits include dwarf broilers that can be used as meat within a short period of time, higher number and better quality of chicks, and tolerance to high temperatures during summer.

Management practices for poultry farming are elucidated.
    •  Maintaining optimum temperature
    •  Providing hygienic housing conditions
    •  Providing a protein-rich diet with high levels of vitamin A and K, and
    •  Preventing and controlling pests and diseases.

Fish farming:
Fish farming is also called as aquaculture. This is culturing of fish for commercial purposes. Fish is a cheap source of animal protein.

Types of fishery
a) Fin fishery and Shell fishery
Fish production involves fin fishery and shell fishery. Two main species of finned true fish are Catla and Rohu, and that of shellfish such as prawns and molluscs.
b) Capture fishery and culture fishery
Fish are obtained by capture fishing as an economic source for their meat. 
    •  Capture fishing involves capturing of fish from sea water or fresh water. Culture fishing involves culturing the fish in small enclosures.
    •  Capture fishing is classified into marine fishery and inland fishery depending upon the resources used for fishing.

Culture fishery involves rearing of fish in small structures like wells.
    •  Fish farming can be done in the rice field where both grains and fish can be harvested from the farm.
    •  As feeding habits of fish differ from species to species, many varieties can be reared on the same farm. Composite fish farming is rearing of different varieties of fish in the same area.  e.g. Composite fish farming includes Catla, the surface feeders, Rohu, feed in the middle zone of a pond, Mrigal and common carp, the bottom feeders, and grass carp, feeding on weeds. These species can co-exist in a single pond, and thus, increase the yield of fish from the pond.
c) Marine fishery and Inland fishery
Mariculture is the culture of fish in marine water.
    •  Marine fishery involves fishing in salt water regions.
    •  Some examples of marine fish are Pomphret, Tuna and Mackerel.
    •  Fish are captured by locating large schools of fish, in the open sea, with the help of satellites and echo-sounders.
    •  Marine fish of high economic value are farmed in seawater. Shellfish, such as prawns, mussels and oysters are also farmed in seawater. Oysters are cultivated for their pearls.

Inland fisheries involve fresh water canals, ponds, reservoirs, rivers from which fish are captured.

Estuaries are the regions where fresh water mixes with sea water. These are rich sources of fish.

Fish farming encounters the problem of lack of quality seed or eggs. Fish are bred in ponds by hormonal stimulation. Fish are injected with hormones that stimulate the production of eggs or seed. This ensures the supply of pure fish seed in desired quantities.

Distinguishing features between Capture fishery, Mariculture and Aquaculture

        CAPTURE FISHERY              MARICULTURE               AQUACULTURE Fishes are caught from natural water resources. Involves culturing and harvesting of fin fishes and shell fishes. Involves culturing and harvesting of fish, prawns, crabs etc. No seeding and rearing are required. Fish seeds are introduced and fish are reared. Fish and other organisms are seeded and reared.  This type of fishing is done both in marine and inland waters. Fishing is done only in sea water. Fishing is done both in fresh water and marine waters.


Apiculture:
Beehives are enclosed structures in which honey bees live and raise their young.
    •  The practice of maintaining honey bee colonies in beehives is called bee-keeping or apiculture. Apiaries or bee farms are established for commercial production of honey.
    •  Bee-keeping is a cheap and popular agricultural enterprise.
    •  Honey produced in bee-hives is the source of honey used in food and medicines. Taste and the quality of the honey depend upon the flowers the bees visit for nectar collection.
    •  Wax obtained from these hives is used in ointments, polishes etc.

Types of bees
Apis Cerana indica is the local variety of bees available for honey production.
Apis dorsata and Apis Florae are other common varieties used for honey production.
An Italian bee variety, Apismellifera, is commonly used for commercial honey production. Bees of this species are known for high amount of honey collection.

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