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Collection and Presentation of Data

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Collection and Presentation of Data - Lesson Summary

Facts or figures, collected with a definite purpose, are called data. It is a systematic record of facts or different values of a quantity. Data is of two types - Primary data and Secondary data.

Primary data
Data collected directly from the source through observation or conversation, or participation is called primary data.

Secondary data
The data gathered from a source where it already exists is called secondary data.

Range of the data
The difference between the highest and lowest values in the given data is called the range of the given data.
Range = Highest value – Lowest value

Frequency
The number of times a value occurs in the given data is called the frequency of that value.

Frequency distribution table
A table that shows the frequency of different values in the given data is called a frequency distribution table. A frequency distribution table that shows the frequency of each individual value in the given data is called an ungrouped frequency distribution table. Tally marks are used to condense the data in tabular form. A table that shows the frequency of groups of values in the given data is called a grouped frequency distribution table.

The groupings used to group the values in given data are called classes or class-intervals. The number of values that each class contains is called the class size or class width.

The least value of a class is called the lower class limit. The greatest value of a class is called the upper class limit. The difference between two successive upper class limits or two successive lower class limits gives the class width of the interval. 



There are gaps in between the upper and lower limits of two consecutive classes. There is a difference between the upper limit of a class and the lower limit of its succeeding class. To make the class limits overlapping we add half of this difference to each of the upper limits and subtract the same from each of the lower limits.

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