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The Judiciary

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The Judiciary - Lesson Summary

The judiciary includes all the courts at different levels in a country and consists of the Supreme Court, High Courts and district courts. The supreme court is the top legal organization.

The Indian courts of law are further divided into two groups: civil courts and criminal courts. The civil courts deal with general disputes regarding land, property, and rights. The Criminal courts deal with cases of murder, riot and looting.

The Supreme Court controls the judicial administration in the country and resolves disputes between citizens, between citizens and the government, between two or more states, and between states and the union governments.

The Indian judiciary is known for being independent from the legislature and the executive, and is non-partisan. The judges do not act on the direction of the government or the ruling party. The judges for the Supreme Court and High courts are appointed by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister and in consultation with the Chief Justice of Supreme Court.

A judge can be removed only when an impeachment motion is passed separately by a two-third majority of members of each of the two houses of the Parliament.

The Supreme Court and the High Courts have the power to interpret the constitution. If the courts feel that any law or action of the government is against the constitution, they can declare it invalid. The Supreme Court has ruled that the basic principles of the constitution cannot be changed by the Parliament. It acts like a guardian of the fundamental rights.

The judiciary can review laws and government actions. The Indian judiciary is independent in the appointment and removal of judges, and in the execution of its powers.

Anyone can approach the courts if public interest and human rights are affected by the actions of the government. This is called a Public Interest Litigation. The courts can intervene to ensure that the government and its officials are not misusing the powers.

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