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Non-Metals - Lesson Summary

Non-metals exist in all the three states.
Some of the non-metals which are exists in three states are given in table.

Solids Liquids Gases Carbon Bromine Hydrogen Silicon NItrogen Phosphorous Oxygen Sulphur Fluorine Iodine Chlorine

Physical Properties of Non-metals
Non-metals are non-lustrous, non-malleable and not ductile, except for carbon fibres, which are ductile.
Non-metals are not sonorous. They do not produce any sound when hit..
Non-metals do not conduct heat and electricity except for graphite.

Chemical Properties of Non-metals
Reaction with oxygen
Non-metals react with oxygen to form their oxides. Non-metal oxides are acidic or neutral in nature. 
Sulphur dioxde is an acidic oxide which forms when sulphur reacts with oxygen.
                           S + O2 → SO2
Sulphur dioxide when added with water forms sulphurous acid.
                     SO2 + H2O → H2SO3
Carbon burns partially in oxyegn to form carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide is neutral in nature.
                          2C + O2 → 2CO

Reaction with water
In general non-metals do not react with water though they may be very reactive in air. Such non-metals are stored in water. 
Example: Phosphorus is a very reactive non-metal. It catches fire if exposed to air. To prevent the contact of phosphorus with atmospheric oxygen, it is stored in water. 

Reaction with acids
Non-metals do not react with acids

Reaction with bases
The reaction of non-metals with bases is complex. 
Example: When chlorine reacts with a base like sodium hydroxide, it gives multiple products like sodium hypochlorite, sodium chloride and water.
                         Cl2 + 2NaOH →NaCl + NaOCl + H2O

Sulphur is used in the preparation of sulphuric acid.
Nitrogen is used in the preparation of nitric acid, ammonia and fertilizers.
Carbon in the form of graphite is useful in the preparation of pencils.
Hydrogen is useful as a rocket fuel.
Chlorine is useful in purification of water.


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