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Harvest and Storage

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Harvest and Storage - Lesson Summary

Crops to grains

As the crop matures, it has to be cut from the main plant. Grains have to be collected from the crop and the waste should be separated from them.

The entire process is a stepwise procedure.         

Harvesting: The process which involves cutting of mature crop to gather grains is known as harvesting. 
       •  Harvesting can be done manually by using a sickle.  A sickle is a small instrument with sharp serrate-edged metal blade attached to a wooden handle.  
       •  Harvesting can also be done by using a machine called as harvester.  


Threshing: It is the process of separating the grains from the straw and chaff.
       •  A thresher is used for threshing.
       •  A combine is a combination of a thresher and a harvester.

Winnowing: It is a process of making natural wind to blow through the grains which allows the lighter substances to fly away leaving the heavier grains which fall on to the ground. Winnowing can be done manually. It can also be done by winnowing machine which has a fan to blow away the chaff.

Crop protection and storage:
       •  Protection of crops against microorganisms, rodents, pests and moisture is done by drying in sun and exposing to fumes.
       •  Harvested grains should be protected from moisture. Moisture promotes the microbial growth. Grains should be properly dried in the sunlight until they possess just 14% of moisture.
       •  Silos are huge, air-tight cylindrical structures used to store grains.
       •  Stored grains are damaged by rodents which consume at about 20% of the crop. Granaries are large rooms built above ground level to prevent rodents and pests from getting near the grains.
       •  Stored grains are also damaged by worms and insects. Neem leaves are spread or neem powder is sprayed to keep away the insects from the storage area.
       •  In cold storage, vegetables and fruits are stored at low temperatures.

Animal husbandry: Rearing and breeding livestock on a large scale to obtain food and other products from them. It includes dairy farming, poultry farming, pisciculture, sericulture, piggery etc. Animal husbandry is the practice employed to increase the production of animal products by livestock. Animal husbandry includes feeding, breeding, and disease control of livestock animals.

Advantages of animal husbandry
As animal husbandry is scientific management of farm animals, it serves many uses for human beings.
       •  It helps in enhancing milk production
       •  It increases egg production
       •  It increases meat production
       •  It increases fish production
       •  It helps in proper management of agricultural wastes.


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