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Conservation of Forest and Wildlife

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Conservation of Forest and Wildlife - Lesson Summary

Biosphere includes all the living forms of earth i.e. the regions of the earth where living organisms exist.

Significance of forests
Forests are the important natural resources provided to human beings for their development.

 

Conservation of forests
Conservation refers to preservation and management of plant and animal species to protect them from being extinct. Forests can be conserved by maintaining biosphere reserves, wild life sanctuaries and national parks zoological parks and botanical gardens.

Biosphere reserve:
A biosphere reserve is a place reserved for all life forms found in a particular area. Biodiversity is the diversity of plant and animal life found in a particular area.
       •  It also deals with the interrelationship and interaction with their environment.
       •  A biosphere reserve comprises an area which can be divided into many zones, each having a particular activity. The zones of biosphere can be named as core, buffer zone and a manipulation zone.
       •  Biosphere reserves help in protecting wild population, traditional life style of regional people and also domestication of plant and animal life.
       •  Pachmarhi biosphere reserve and Nilgiri biosphere reserve are the important biosphere reserves of India.
       •  A biosphere reserve comprises of a number of national parks and wildlife sanctuaries.
       •  Rajiv Gandhi National Park, Silent Valley National Park, Mukurthi Wildlife Sanctuary and  Mudumalai Tiger Reserve.
       •  The Mudumalai National Park hosts a variety of flora such as the Begonia malabarica, rosewood, coral trees, etc.
       •  The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve is the first Indian biosphere reserve. Plants and animals confined to a particular area are referred to as the flora and fauna.



National parks:
National parks are large and diverse reserves which help in protection of different ecosystems. These can protect flora, fauna and many other aspects of the ecosystem.
       •  Different wild animals like snow leopard, clouded leopard, marbled cat, panda, black bear, blud sheep, wild ass, toucan, musk deer etc are protected from getting extinct.
       •  Corbett national park, Kanha national park, Sanjay national park, Periyar national park, Bannughatta national park are some of the national parks in India.

Wildlife sanctuaries:
Wildlife sanctuaries are the areas which help in preservation of species of wild plants and animals.
       •  Wildlife sanctuaries are the places where killing animals and cutting trees are prohibited.
       •  Threatened wild animals like black buck, white eyed buck, elephant, python, rhinoceros, marsh crocodile golden cat are preserved here.

Endemic species
Endemic species are the animals and plants exclusively found in a specific geographical area. Endemic species found in the Nilgiri biosphere reserve are Nilgiri langurs, Great Indian horn bills, thorny costers, blue mormons etc.

Endangered species
Endangered species are the species of plants and animals that are at a high risk of getting extinct in their habitat.
       •  Endangered species are limited number of individual survivals of that area.
       •  Endangered animals are threatened wild animals of a particular habitat.
       •  The only way to protect endangered animals from extinction is by increasing awareness.
       •  Some of the endangered species at   Waynad Wildlife Sanctuary are the black buck, marsh crocodile, python etc. Killing or poaching of animals is prohibited in the Waynad Wildlife Sanctuary.
       •  Project Tiger is a government initiative, launched to ensure the survival of the tiger population.  

Extinct species
Extinct species are the animals or plants that have disappeared and no longer exist anywhere on the earth.

Conservation of wildlife
The plants and animals found in one particular area are termed to be the flora and fauna of that area. All the living organisms which include plants, animals and microorganisms should be conserved for many reasons.
       •  Ecological balance should be maintained in order to restore biogeochemical cycles and food chains.
       •  The variety of wild animals should be preserved in the form of gene bank to enhance breeding programmes.
       •  Wild animals possess some aesthetic values.
       •  Wildlife should be conserved by proper planning and management of land, water and other resources.
       •  Over-exploitation of useful organisms should be stopped.
       •  Wildlife should be protected from the activities of hunters. Indian government has posed an act against hunting in 1972 – ‘Wildlife Protection Act’.  

Red Data Book
Red Data Book is the source which provides the important information about endangered species. It keeps a track record of about these animals. There are different Red Data Books for plants and animals.

Migration
Migration is the movement of animals in large numbers from their original habitat to another place in order to overcome unfavourable conditions posed by climate of that particular habitat.



       •  Birds migrate in search of warmer places for egg laying, better shelters and to escape unfavourable conditions.
       •  In other words, when natural habitats are not conducive for breeding, birds move to safer areas to breed, which is called migration.
       •  Birds that fly from far-off places to reach a new habitat are known as migratory birds.
            e.g. A number of birds migrate to the Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary.

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