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Distribution of Industries - Cotton Textile

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Distribution of Industries - Cotton Textile - Lesson Summary

The word ‘textile’ is derived from a Latin word, texere, which means ‘to weave.’ Fibres are the raw material of the textile industry and can be natural or man-made. Natural fibres are obtained from wool, silk, cotton, linen and jute while man-made fibres include nylon, polyester, acrylic and rayon.

Till the industrial revolution, cotton cloth was made using hand spinning techniques with the help of spinning wheels and looms. The Industrial Revolution was started with the mechanization of the textile industry.

The cotton gin was introduced during the Industrial Revolution in the late 18 th century and brought about a massive growth in the production of cotton. The first country to have a power loom or a cotton textile industry was Great Britain.

At present, the major textile industries are concentrated in India, Hong Kong and South Korea.
In India, the first textile mill was established at Fort Gloster near Kolkata in 1818. The first successful modern textile mill was established in Mumbai in 1854.

The warm and moist climate, and the availability of raw material, skilled labour and ready ports for importing machinery, resulted in a rapid expansion of the industry in the region. The cotton mills were concentrated in the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat initially because of suitable climate.

The industry today has spread to other parts of India like Coimbatore, Kanpur, Chennai, Kolkata, Ludhiana, Puducherry and Panipat. About 1/3 rd of the Indian textile industry’s total production is export-oriented and the biggest importer of Indian textile is the USA.

Ahmadabad in Gujarat flourished as the second largest textile city of India after Mumbai. The city is surrounded by cotton fields, which ensure easy availability of raw material. Besides suitable climate, this area has a flat terrain and easy access to skilled and semi-skilled labour from the densely populated states of Gujarat and the neighbouring state of Maharashtra.

The flat terrain enables transportation of textiles to different parts of the country, and subsequently to the markets.

The port city of Osaka is the hub of the textile industry in Japan. The textile industry developed in Osaka due to several geographical factors similar to Ahmedabad and Mumbai in India.

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