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Weather and Climate

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Weather and Climate - Lesson Summary

The day-to-day conditions of the atmosphere at a place with respect to elements like temperature, humidity, rainfall, wind speed, etc. is called the weather of that place.
Changes in weather are observed in the atmosphere. The atmosphere is all around us – we cannot see it, but it keeps us warm. Without it, the earth would be a lifeless ice ball. In addition, the atmosphere absorbs or deflects the incoming ultraviolet rays and other charged particles.

Constituents of weather
Weather is made up of elements like rainfall, temperature, humidity, wind speed, snow, thunder and lightning.

Factors effecting weather
The sun is responsible for all the changes in the weather. We know that the sun is a huge sphere of hot gases and has a very high temperature. The distance between the sun and us is very large. The sun is the chief source of light and heat for the earth. It is also the primary source of energy, and causes changes in the weather.

The energy absorbed and reflected by the earth’s surface, the oceans and the atmosphere play an important role in determining the weather at any place. Also, gases like carbon dioxide, methane and water vapor play a role in determining the weather.

Place and weather
The weather in coastal areas is very different than that in a desert or hilly areas. The maximum and the minimum temperatures of a place are recording using a special type of thermometer every day. Special thermometers called maximum and minimum thermometers are used to determine the maximum and the minimum temperatures in a day.
The maximum temperature of the day is recorded during the afternoon, while the minimum temperature is recorded early in the morning.

Measuring the components of weather
Different types of measuring instruments are available to measure different weather components like temperature, rainfall, windspeed, humidity etc.

Measuring temperature of a place
The change in the temperature of the day. The temperature is low early in the morning, and increases by noon. It decreases again towards the evening, and the cycle continues.
The instrument useful to measure the temperature of a place is thermometer. Inorder to measure the highest and lowest temperature of a place is maximum minimum thermometer (MMT).

Measuring rainfall
In general meterologists measures the rainfall by using a "Rain gauge" also called as Ombrometer or Puliometer expressed in centimeters or millimeters.

Measuring the direction of wind
The direction of wind and speed  by using Anemometer.

Measuring humidity of a place
" Quantity of moisture in the air is the humidity of the place". It feels more sweaty when humidity is high and high temperature.

Climate of a place
In winters, it gets dark early. Meteorologists record the weather every day. The records of the weather are preserved for several decades. These records helpful to determine the pattern of the weather at a place. The average weather pattern taken over a longer time is called the climate of the place.

The mean temperature for a given month is found in two steps. First, we find the average of the temperatures recorded during the month. Next, we calculate the average of such temperatures over many years. The result is the mean temperature.

Mean temperature helps compare the weather at two different places. For example, if we compare the temperatures of Thiruvananthapuram in Kerala and Srinagar in Jammu and Kashmir, we can conclude that Thiruvananthapuram is very hot and wet than Srinagar, which is moderately hot and wet for some parts of the year.

Consider another place like Rajasthan, which has high temperatures during most parts of the year, but very low temperatures in winter, which lasts for a few months. This region receives scanty rainfall. Therefore, it is known as typical desert climate.

North-eastern India receives rain for a major part of the year. Hence, we can say that the climate of the region is wet.

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