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Magnetic Properties

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Magnetic Properties - Lesson Summary

The magnetic property of a substance is due to the presence of electrons. Every electron has a permanent spin magnetic moment and an orbital magnetic moment associated with it. The values of magnetic moment are units called Bohr magneton.

1 Bohr magneton = 9.27 *10-24 Am2

Based on magnetic properties of materials, they are classified into five categories, namely,


Diamagnetic materials: 
Diamagnetic materials are repelled by magnets. Diamagnetism is shown by substances in which all the electrons are paired and there are no unpaired electrons.

EX: water sodium chloride and benzene.


Paramagnetic materials: 

Paramagnetic materials are materials that are weekly attracted by magnets. Paramagnetism is due to the presence of one or more unpaired electrons, which are attracted by the magnetic field.

EX: Fe+3 Cu+2 Cr+3


Ferromagnetic materials: 
Ferromagnetic materials are materials that are strongly attracted by magnets. In solid state, the metal ions of ferromagnetic substances are grouped together into small regions called domains. Thus, each domain acts as a tiny magnet.

When the ferromagnetic substance is placed in a magnetic field, all the domains get oriented in the direction of the magnetic field.

Ex: Iron, cobalt, nickel and gadolinium.


Anti-ferromagnetic substances:
These substances have the same domain structure as ferromagnetic substances. But their domains are oppositely oriented and cancel out each other's magnetic moments.

EX: Manganese dioxide


Ferrimagnetic material: 
Ferrimagnetism is observed when the magnetic moments of the domains in a substance are aligned in parallel and anti-parallel directions in unequal numbers.

EX: Magnetite and ferrites.

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