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Female Reproductive System

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Female Reproductive System - Lesson Summary

It includes the ovaries, oviducts, uterus, cervix, vagina and the external genitalia located in the pelvic region. The female accessory ducts include the oviducts, uterus and the vagina. It supports the process of ovulation, fertilisation, pregnancy, child birth and child care.  

The uterus is a hollow pear-shaped muscular organ and is highly distensible. The female  external genitalia are called the vulva. The mammary gland houses the lactiferous duct that provides nutrition in the form of milk to infants after their birth. Primary female sex organs include a pair of ovaries, which are located one on each side of the lower abdomen.

Each ovary is covered by an outer thin layer called the germinal epithelium. The germinal epithelium encloses the ovarian stroma, which is further divided into the outer cortex and the inner medulla. The cortex consists of many ovarian follicles in different stages of development.  The ovarian follicle is the basic unit of the female reproductive system. Each oviduct is differentiated into three parts, namely infundibulum, ampulla and isthmus.

Uterus is a hollow pear shaped muscular organ and is highly distensible. The wall of the uterus are composed of three layers  of tissues- the outer thin membranous perimetrium, middle thick layer of smooth muscle, myometrium and inner glandular layer called endometrium. Vagina is a muscular tube starting from the lower end of the uterus up to the outside.

The female external genitalia are called the vulva. They include mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, and clitoris. The mammary gland houses the lactiferous duct  that after child birth provides nutrition in the form of milk to infants. The female external genitalia are called the vulva. They include mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, and clitoris. The mammary gland houses the lactiferous duct  that after child birth provides nutrition in the form of milk to infants.

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