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Theory Of Electromagnetic Radiation And Planck's Quantum Theory

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Theory Of Electromagnetic Radiation And Planck's Quantum Theory - Lesson Summary

Line spectra could not be explained using the Rutherford's nuclear model. In 1864, James Clark Maxwell established the wave nature of electromagnetic radiation.

Characteristics of waves are associated with wavelength, frequency, velocity and wave number. Electromagnetic radiations travel with the same velocity but differ from one another in wavelength and frequency. Their wavelengths increase from gamma rays to x-rays to ultra violet rays, visible rays, infra red rays, micro-waves to radio waves.

When these electromagnetic waves of different wavelengths are arranged in the order of increasing wavelength or decreasing frequencies, an electromagnetic spectrum is formed.

Wave nature of electromagnetic radiation explains interference and diffraction but could not explain black body radiation and photoelectric effect.

In 1900, Max Planck established the Planck's Quantum Theory that states that radiant energy, such as light and heat, is propagated in the form of small packets called Quanta. The amount of energy associated with the quantum of energy is proportional to the frequency of radiation

E ∝ v
E = h × v

The total amount of energy emitted or absorbed by a body will be multiple of quanta.

E =nhv

n =1, 2, 3, 4….

This is called quantization of energy.

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