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Classification

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Classification - Lesson Summary

Hydrocarbons are organic compounds containing only hydrogen and carbon.
Coal and Petroleum are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons.
Coal tar product of Destructive Distillation of Coal, when subjected to fractional distillation, produces various aromatic compounds including benzene. These compounds are used in the preparation of various industrially useful products such as polymers like polythene, polypropene, polystyrene, dyes, drugs etc.

Petroleum is a major source of alkanes and cycloalkanes. When it is subjected to fractional distillation, the various fractions obtained are used as fuels.
Ex:  Natural gas in the form of CNG, Compressed Natural Gas and LNG. Liquefaction of petroleum gas renders a very useful domestic fuel in the form of LPG. Kerosene oil is also used as a domestic fuel, though it adds to pollution to a less extent. Petrol and diesel are also used as automobile fuels.

Classification of hydrocarbons:
On the basis of carbon skeleton (type of carbon- carbon bonds) the hydrocarbons can be classified into three main categories - saturated, unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons.
Saturated hydrocarbons are the hydrocarbons consisting of carbon-to-carbon single bonds.
Saturated, open chain or acyclic hydrocarbons in which carbon atoms are linked by straight or branched chains are called alkanes.
The general formula for alkanes is C nH 2n+2where n is equal to the number of carbon atoms present.


Ex: Propane

Saturated hydrocarbons in which the carbon atoms join together to form a closed chain are called cycloalkanes. General formula for cycloalkanes is CnH2n (n is equal to the number of carbon atoms).


Ex:  Cyclopropane

Unsaturated hydrocarbons consist of one or more carbon-to-carbon multiple bonds, a double bond or a triple bond.
Unsaturated open chain or acyclic hydrocarbons in which carbon atoms are linked by straight or branched chains containing at least one carbon-to-carbon double bond are called alkenes.
The general formula for alkenes is C nH 2n.
Ex: Propene.
Unsaturated, open chain or acyclic hydrocarbons in which carbon atoms are linked by straight or branched chains containing at least one carbon-to-carbon triple bond are called alkynes.
The general formula for alkynes is C nH 2n-2.
Ex: Propyne.
Aromatic hydrocarbons are cyclic hydrocarbons with alternative double bonds in conjugation which contains 4n+2 number of pi-electrons.
 

Ex: Benzene, toluene etc.

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