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Hydrolysis Of Salts And Buffer Solutions

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Hydrolysis Of Salts And Buffer Solutions - Lesson Summary

Salts are formed by the neutralization of acid with base.

      Acid + Base        → Salt + Water
 HCL(aq) + NaOH(aq) → NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)

The process in which the cation or anion of the salt reacts with water to produce an acidic or an alkaline solution is called the salt hydrolysis.

            AB(aq) → A+(aq) + B-(aq)
   A+(aq) + (OH)-(aq) → AOH(aq)
    B-(aq) + H+(aq) → HB(aq)
  Salt + Water → Acid + Base

 Hydrolysis is the reverse process of neutralization.

The aqueous solution of a salt of a weak acid and a strong base is alkaline due to hydrolysis of the anion.

CH3COONa (aq) + H2O (l)  ⇌   C H 3 COOH(aq) + NaOH (aq)

  
CH3COONa(aq) → CH3COO-(aq)+Na+(aq)
CH3COO-(aq) + H2O(l) ⇌ Ch3COOH(aq) + OH-(aq)

The aqueous solution of a salt of a weak base and a strong aid is acidic due to the hydrolysis of its cation.

            NH3(aq) + HCl(aq) ⇌ NH4Cl(aq)
       NH+4(aq) + H2O(l) ⇌ NH4OH(aq) + H+(aq)

The aqueous solution of salt of a weak acid and a weak base is almost neutral due to the hydrolysis of both the anion and the cation.

    CH3COOH(aq) + NH3(aq) ⇌ CH3COONH4(aq)
 CH3COO-(aq) + H2O(l) ⇌ CH3COOH(aq) + OH-(aq)
     NH+4(aq) + H2O(l) ⇌ NH4OH(aq) + H+(aq)

The aqueous solution of a salt of a strong acid and a strong base is neutral, as neither the anion nor cation undergoes hydrolysis.

   HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) → NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)

A solution which resists any change in its pH on dilution or on the addition of small amount of a strong acid or a strong alkali is called a buffer solution. It is formed by the combination of weak acid/base and its salt with strong base/acid.

Ex: Buffer solution formed by the combination of weak acetic acid and its salt with strong base like Sodium hydroxide.

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