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Molecular Orbital Theory: Energy Level Diagram

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Molecular Orbital Theory: Energy Level Diagram - Lesson Summary

As in atoms, electrons in a molecule too first occupy lower energy levels.

For molecules formed by atoms containing more than two electrons, we will only consider the molecular orbitals formed by their valence shell and not the ones formed by their core orbitals to understand their stability.

The bond number obtained by using the molecular orbital model is different from the bond number obtained using the Lewis structure because in the Lewis structure, all the electrons are paired and here, two of the electrons are unpaired.

When electrons in an atom or molecule are paired, they form a diamagnetic atom or molecule and when the electrons in an atom or molecule are not paired, they form a paramagnetic atom or molecule.

Molecular orbitals are obtained by combining the atomic orbitals of the atoms in a molecule.

The molecular orbital formed due to constructive interference is called a bonding molecular orbital as the electrons belonging to it are placed between the two nuclei.

Sigma orbitals stabilize a molecule.

The molecular orbital formed due to destructive interference is called an anti-bonding or sigma star molecular orbital as the electrons belonging to it are placed away from the region between the two nuclei, making the molecule less stable.

The energies of the molecular orbitals depend up on the energies of respective atomic orbitals which are involved in their formation.

Ex: The energies of molecular orbitals formed by the combination 2s orbitals will have high energy than the molecular orbitals formed by the combination 1s atomic orbitals.

In the same pair of molecular orbitals the bonding molecular orbitals posses less energy than anti-bonding orbitals.

Orbitals like π2px , π2py and π2p*x, π2p*y which are formed by the combination of 2pz, 2px and 2py are called degenerate orbitals as they posses same energies.

Following given the energy level sequence among different molecular orbitals.

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