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Ionic Bond

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Ionic Bond - Lesson Summary

The chemical bond formed by the transfer of electrons from one atom to another atom is called ionic bond.

Generally metals lose electrons and non-metals gain electrons.

It is defined the force of attraction existing between oppositely charged species namely cation and anion. Cation is formed when the atoms lose electrons and anion formed when atoms gain electrons.

Ex: CaF₂, NaCl, MgO…etc

Formation of NaCl molecule:

Na -1e⁻ → Na⁺

Cl +1e⁺ → Cl⁻

Factors affecting ionic bond formation:
Ionization energy, electron gain enthalpy, lattice energy.

Ionization enthalpy:
It is defined as the amount of energy required to remove electrons from outer shell of an atom. Lesser is the value of ionization enthalpy easier is the formation of cation.

In general alkali metals and alkaline earth metals will lose electrons by supplying little amount of energy to form cation.

Electron gain enthalpy:
It is defined as the energy released when an electron added to outermost shell of an atom.

Halogens are the elements which readily takes electrons to form anion they posses high value of electron gain enthalpy.

Lower the ionization enthalpy and higher the negative value of electron gain enthalpy, greater is the ease of formation of a cation and anion, that is, greater is the ease of formation of an ionic bond.

Lattice enthalpy:
The magnitude of energy released during the formation of crystal lattice called lattice enthalpy provides a measure for determination of the stability of the ionic compound.

Size of ions is also influence the lattice energy. Thus, smaller the size of ions smaller will be the internuclear distance that requires high lattice energy.

Properties of ionic compounds:

Generally ionic compounds exist in solid state.

hey posses high melting and boiling points.

In solid state these are not good conductors of electricity, but are good conductors of electricity in molten state and in aqueous state.

These compounds are readily soluble in polar solvents like water and insoluble in non-polar solvents.

Energy released when these compounds are soluble in polar solvents. If the solvent is water, then the energy released is called hydration energy.


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