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Hydrogen Bonding

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Hydrogen Bonding - Lesson Summary

The force of attraction existing between hydrogen atom which is attached to highly electronegative atom in a covalent molecule and more electronegative atom of another covalent molecule is called hydrogen bonding.

Hydrogen bond is possible mostly in polar covalent molecules where partial charge separation is there.

As this bond existed between partial charges, it is considered to be weak bond than ionic and covalent bonds.

Ex: Hydrogen bond present in HF molecule.

The physical state of a compound determines the strength of a hydrogen bond.

Hydrogen bonding is very strong in the solid state but minimal in the gaseous state.

Based on the type of interactions, the hydrogen bond is classified into two types they are intermolecular hydrogen bonding and intramolecular hydrogen bonding.


Intermolecular hydrogen bonding:
The hydrogen bonding present between the different molecules, is called as intermolecular hydrogen bonding.

Ex: Hydrogen bonding present in Water.


Intramolecular hydrogen bonding:
The hydrogen bonding present within the same molecule, is called as intramolecular hydrogen bonding.

Ex: Hydrogen bonding present in Ortho-Nitro Phenol

The strength of hydrogen bond depends on the electronegativity of the atoms. Greater the electronegativity of the atom stronger will be the hydrogen bond.

Ex: The boiling point of water (H₂O) is higher than hydrogen sulphide (H₂S) because of higher electronegativity of oxygen.

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