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Hybridisation

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Hybridisation - Lesson Summary

The process of "intermixing of atomic orbitals of nearly same energies to form a new set of orbitals having equivalent energies" is called hybridization. And orbitals which are formed in hybridization process are called hybrid orbitals.

Conditions for the hybridization:

· Orbitals of same element should take part in the hybridization.

· There should be minimum difference between the orbitals undergoing hybridization.

Characteristics of Hybridization:

· During hybridization the number of hybrid orbitals formed is equal to the number of atomic orbitals involved in hybridization.

· Hybrid orbitals form more stable and stronger bonds than pure atomic orbitals.

· Hybridization does not take place in isolated atoms and possible in those atoms which are prior to participate in chemical bonding.

Types of Hybridization:

· Different types of orbitals intermix with each other to form different types of hybrid orbitals.

· Hybrid orbitals are formed by mixing of s, p and d atomic orbitals.

Following table gives the information different types of hybridization and hybrid orbitals.

Mixed atomic orbitals

Formed Hybrid orbitals

Hybridization

1-s and 1-p orbital

sp

sp-hybridization

1-s and 2-p orbitals

sp²

sp²-hybridization

1-s and 3-p orbitals

sp³

sp³-hybridization

1-s and 3-p orbitals and 1-d orbital

sp³d

sp³d -hybridization

1-s and 3-p orbitals and 2-d orbitals

sp³d²

sp³d² -hybridization

1-s and 3-p orbitals and 3-d orbitals

sp³d³

sp³d³ -hybridization






 


















· Hybrid orbitals give characteristic geometric shape to polyatomic molecules.

· Shape of the molecule in which central atom is sp-hybridized is linear.

Ex: Ethyne (CH≡CH), alkynes.

Shape of the molecule in which central atom is sp²- hybridized is trigonal planar.

Ex: Ethene (CH₂=CH₂), alkenes.

Shape of the molecule in which central atom is sp³- hybridized is tetrahedral.

Ex: Methane (CH₄), alkanes.

Shape of the molecule in which central atom is sp³d- hybridized is trigonal bipyramidal.

Ex: Phosphorous pentachloride (PCl₅)

Shape of the molecule in which central atom is sp³d²- hybridized is octahedral.

Ex: Sulphur hexafluoride (SF₆).

Shape of sp³d³ hybrid orbital is pentagonal bipyramidal.

Ex: IF₇

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