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Covalent Bond - I

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Covalent Bond - I - Lesson Summary

The bond formed by the mutual sharing of electrons between the combining atoms of the same or of different elements is called a covalent bond.

During covalent bond formation, each atom tries to attain octet, that is, (8 electrons) in its valence shell or duplet (two electrons) in the first shell.

Covalent bond present between two similar atoms is called as non-polar covalent bond.

Ex: H₂, N₂, O₂, Cl₂…etc

Covalent bond present between two dissimilar atoms is called polar covalent bond. In these compounds there exists charge separation.

Ex: HCl, H₂O, NH₃…etc

In the case of poly atomic ions the net charge present on them, called as formal charge. The formal charge present on the atom calculated using the formula.

Formal charge = (number of valence electrons) - [(number of unshared electrons) + ½ (number of shared electrons)]

Ex: Formal charge present on Carbonate ion (CO₃⁻²)

Formal charge on Carbon = (4) -[0+ ½(8)] = 6 - 6

= 0

Formal charge on single bonded oxygen atom = (6) -[(6) +½(2)]

= 6 - 7

= -1

Formal charge on double bonded oxygen atom = (6) -[(4) +½(4)]

= 6 - 6

= 0


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