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Bond Parameters

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Bond Parameters - Lesson Summary

There are certain factors which affect the chemical bond between two atoms which are called bond parameters.

The bond parameters are: bond length, bond angle, bond enthalpy and bond order. Bond length is the distance between the nuclei of the atoms that are bonded together. Half the distance between two similar atoms in a molecule is called covalent radius.

Covalent radius = Bond length / 2

Half the distance between two similar atoms of separated molecules in solid state is called vanderwaal's radius.

The number of chemical bonds between a pair of atoms in a molecule is called the bond order of the molecule.

The bond order also has affect on bond length. With increase in number of bonds between the atoms, the bond length decreases.

Based on the number of electron pairs the bond order in a molecule can be identified.

Ex: In acetylene molecule there are 3 electron pairs shared between two carbon atoms, so the bond order between carbon atoms in acetylene molecule is 3.

The angle between the orbitals present around the central atom in a molecule is called the bond angle.

The angle between two bonds will be affected by the repulsions between bonding pairs and even between bona pairs and lone pairs.

Ex: The bond angle in water (H₂O) is 104.5° more than the bond angle in Hydrogen sulphide (H₂S) is 91.5°due to more repulsions between bonding pairs in water molecule.

Bond enthalpy is the amount of energy required to break one chemical bond between two gaseous atoms in a molecule.

With the increase in the bond order, the bond enthalpy is also increases.

Ex: It requires high energy to break bonds between carbon atoms in ethylene compared to energy required to break bond between carbon atoms in ethane molecule.

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