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Anatomy of Frog

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Anatomy of Frog - Lesson Summary

Anatomy of a frog: Frogs have well-developed organ systems. Their digestive, respiratory, vascular, excretory, nervous and reproductive systems are held in a body cavity.
The digestive system consists of an alimentary canal and digestive glands. The alimentary canal begins mouth that opens into a buccal cavity, which leads into a pharynx. The pharynx continues into oesophagus. The oesophagus is followed by the stomach, which continues as the intestine, rectum and finally opens into the cloaca. Frogs possess two main digestive glands – the liver and pancreas. As the food passes through the stomach, duodenum,intestine the digestion of food is completed. In the intestine, food absorbed. The undigested solid waste passes through the rectum and egested through the cloaca.
The anatomical study also includes the respiratory system. Frogs respire in water and on land in two different ways. In water, the frog’s skin functions as the respiratory organ, this is called cutaneous respiration. On land, a frog respires through the buccal cavity, skin and lungs.
The vascular system of frog consists of blood vascular system and a lymphatic system. The blood vascular system consists of the heart, blood vessels and blood while the lymphatic system consists of lymph, lymph channels and lymph nodes. The blood consists of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets while the lymph lacks red blood cells and a few proteins. As the heart beats, blood circulates various substances such as gases, nutrients and hormones to different parts of the body.
The excretory system consists of a pair of kidneys, ureters, the urinary bladder and cloaca. The nephrons in the kidneys absorb the excretory wastes from the blood and convert them into urea. As frogs excrete urea, they are called ureotelic animals.
The endocrine glands and the nervous system of frogs, the chemical coordination of different organs is brought about by hormones that are secreted by the endocrine glands. These include pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, pineal body, pancreatic islets, adrenals and gonads. The nervous system in frogs includes the central, peripheral and autonomic nervous systems. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord; the peripheral nervous system consists of cranial and spinal nerves; and the autonomic nervous system consists of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
Frogs are unisexual animals with well-developed male and female reproductive systems. The male reproductive system consists of two yellowish ovoid testes. From each testis arise five to six vasa deferentia join the urinogenital duct and open into the cloaca. The female reproductive system consists of a pair of ovaries. After copulation, the eggs are fertilised externally in the presence of water.These eggs develop into tadpoles, which undergo metamorphosis to form adult frogs. 


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