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Angiosperms - Lesson Summary

Angiosperms are flowering plants. In these plants, the ovules develop inside the flowers and the seeds are enclosed in fruits. They can be monocotyledonous or dicotyledonous. A typical flower of an angiosperm contains the stamen and the pistil. The stamen consists of the filament and anther. The microsporangia inside the anther contain microspore mother cells that undergo meiosis to produce microspores, which then develop into pollen grains. The pistil consists of the stigma, style and ovary.

The ovary contains the ovules. The ovules contain the megaspore mother cell, which undergoes meiosis to develop into the eight celled embryo-sac. The embryo-sac has a three-celled egg apparatus consisting of one egg cell, two synergids, three antipodal cells and two polar nuclei. The polar nuclei fuse to produce a diploid secondary nucleus.

The pollen grains from the anther are carried by the wind or insects and deposited on the stigma of a pistil, a process called pollination. Here, a pollen grain germinates and produces a pollen tube, which penetrates the stigma and style to enter the embryo-sac inside the ovule. It discharges two male gametes inside the embryo-sac. While one gamete fuses with the egg cell to produce a zygote, the other gamete fuses with the diploid secondary nucleus to produce the triploid primary endosperm nucleus.

This event is called double fertilisation. The zygote develops into an embryo and the primary endosperm nucleus develops into the endosperm, which nourishes the zygote. Simultaneously, the ovule develops into a seed and the ovary into a fruit. The seed germinates and the embryo develops into a new plant. 


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