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Attitude of Different Sections of Society

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Attitude of Different Sections of Society - Lesson Summary

Several people from different sections of society had participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement to meet their specific objectives. The rich peasant communities of Gujarat and UP were badly affected by the economic depression and the resultant fall in agricultural prices.
They demanded the revenue to be waived off but the government refused and hence they joined the Civil Disobedience Movement.
In 1931 the movement was abruptly called off by Mahatma Gandhi without any revision of the revenue rates. Hence, they did not participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement when it was re- launched in 1932.
The poor peasants grappled with the problem of paying rent during the time of Depression. The Congress was uncertain about supporting them in their ‘No Rent’ campaign as they feared it could spoil their ties with the Landlords and rich peasants.
The business class had reaped huge profits during the First World War and wanted to expand their business but the stringent colonial laws were obstructing their way.
To get the business class together, Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress was formed in 1920 and the Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries (FICCI) in 1927. These organisations were headed by prominent business personalities like Purushottamdas Thakurdas and G.D. Birla.
Business class viewed Swaraj as an ideal situation, favourable for the growth of their business, a time when all colonial restrictions would be removed. However, the failure of the Second Round table Conference and the growth of socialist ideas in Congress disappointed the business class and made them anxious about the future.
The Hindustan Socialist Republican Army or HSRA was formed in 1928 with Bhagat Singh, Jatin Das and Ajoy Ghosh its prominent leaders.
The industrial working class adopted a few Gandhian ideas like boycott of foreign goods as part of their own movement against low wages and poor working conditions. The Congress still did not want to include workers’ demands in the movement as they thought it would alienate the industrialists.
The Civil Disobedience Movement witnessed mass participation of women. They were involved in protests, picketing and boycotts and also helped in manufacturing salt.
On the face of it, Congress encouraged women participation but even Mahatma Gandhi gave more importance to the traditional domestic role of women.


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