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Flora and Fauna in India

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Flora and Fauna in India - Lesson Summary

We share Earth with millions of species of plants and animals.  Plants, trees, animals and microorganisms maintain the quality of our planet’s air, water and soil, which is essential for the survival of humans.

Forests are the primary producers, on which all the species of animals depend directly or indirectly. The variety of living things found in a region, country or the entire earth is called its biological diversity or biodiversity.

All the species of plants and trees found in a region are collectively called the flora of the region. The species of animals found in a region are collectively called the fauna of the region. India is home to around 1.6 million or nearly 8% of all the species of flora and fauna found in the world. India is home to around 47000 species of flora and to over 81000 species of fauna. Over-exploitation and insensitivity towards our environment has led to large-scale degradation of biodiversity in India.

The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, or IUCN, has classified the species of flora and fauna as normal, extinct, endangered, vulnerable, rare or endemic.

Plants and animals whose population is sufficient for the survival of their species are called normal species. A species that cannot be found after prolonged search in its area of habitation is called an extinct species.

A species that is facing the danger of extinction, if the factors responsible for its decline are not checked is called an endangered species. A species that is likely to become endangered due to decreasing population unless conserved is called vulnerable species.

A species with a small population that is likely to become vulnerable or endangered without conservation efforts is called a rare species. A species found only in a particular region due to isolation by natural or geographic barriers is called an endemic species.

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