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Volcanoes, Tsunamis and Cyclones

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Volcanoes, Tsunamis and Cyclones - Lesson Summary

Volcano eruptions happen when the molten rocks or lava in the earth’s crust come out along with gases and steam flow on the earth’s surface.

There are three types of volcanoes: active, dormant and extinct. The active volcanoes erupt from time to time. The dormant volcanoes were active in the past, though they have not shown any activities for a long time. The extinct volcanoes do not have any recorded history of being active. Most of the volcanoes are found in the Ring of Fire in the Pacific Ocean.

Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions cause a sudden disturbance at the base of the ocean, causing abrupt displacement of water. Such activities produce very high waves which are called Tsunamis. Even though tsunamis or big earthquakes cannot be precisely predicted, there are automated early warning systems that can provide warnings immediately after an earthquake in time to save lives.

A cyclone is an egg-shaped air formation that moves in the form of swirling winds. It has low air pressure at its centre but very high pressure at the surface. Since air moves from a region of high pressure to a region of low pressure, cyclones cause high winds and heavy rainfall.

Some precautions from cyclone are:
  • Using early warning system. The Indian Meteorological Department issues cyclone warnings in India.
  • Cyclone proof structures should be built in coastal areas.
  • Planting trees also help in fighting cyclones


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