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Droughts

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Droughts - Lesson Summary

Droughts are severe when rainfall in an area is below 50% of the average rainfall. When an area receives rainfall that is 25% less than the average rainfall, it is termed as a General Drought. Droughts are divided into three types: Seasonal Drought, Water Drought and Agricultural Drought.

Seasonal Drought occurs when there’s little rain for a prolonged period. Lack of water in water resources such as rivers, lakes and ponds is called a Water Drought and lack of crops is called an Agricultural Drought.

Factors for occurrence of drought:
  • Scarce rain or no rain at all
  • Destruction of forests
  • Over use of agricultural land. Less vegetation also leads to droughts
  • Depleting ground water level accompanied by the absence of rain

Coping with drought:
  • Store rain water to prevent droughts. Dig ponds to collect the rain water and build dams to collect excess rain water.
  • Plant more trees to avoid droughts, around 35% of land should be earmarked as green belts
  • Regions that receive excess rainfall may share the extra water with the parched and dry regions
  • Water supply to the agricultural fields in the parched regions can be increased by rainwater harvesting, canal irrigation and building contour bunds
  • Farmers can insure their crop to prevent financial losses.

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