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# Chemical Properties of Carbon Compounds

## Summary

LearnNext Lesson Video

HD 9:13

Carbon compounds undergo different types of chemical reactions.

Combustion:
All carbon compounds react with oxygen to produce heat and light along with carbon dioxide and water. This reaction of carbon with oxygen is called combustion.

Carbon Compound + Oxygen → Carbon dioxide + water + heat and light
CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2O + Heat and light.
•  Aliphatic compounds on combustion produce a non-sooty flame.
•  Aromatic compounds on combustion produce sooty flame.

Oxidation:
Alcohols undergo oxidation in presence of oxidising agents like alkaline potassium permanganate
or acidified potassium dichromate to form carboxylic acids.
Example:
Ethyl alcohol on oxidation with alkaline potassium permanganate or acidified potassium dichromate gives acetic acid.
CH3-CH2-OH   $\underset{\to }{\text{Alkaline}{\text{KMnO}}_{\text{4}}\text{or Acidified}{{{\text{K}}_{\text{2}}\text{Cr}}_{\text{2}}\text{O}}_{\text{7}}}$  CH3-COOH

A chemical reaction is said to be an  addition reaction if two substances combine and form a third substance. In general unsaturated hydrocarbons like alkenes and alkynes prefers to undergo addition reactions.
Hydrogenation reaction involves the addition of hydrogen to unsaturated hydrocarbons in presence of catalyst like nickel or platinum to form saturated hydrocarbons.
Example:

CH ≡ CH + 2H2        $\underset{\to }{\text{Ni or Pt}}$         CH3-CH3

CH= CH2 + X2 → CH2X - CH2

Substitution reaction:
A reaction in which an atom or group of atoms replaces another atom or group of atoms is called substitution reaction. Alkanes undergo substitution reactions.
Example:
Chlorination of methane in presence of sunlight gives a mixture of products like methyl chloride,
methylene chloride, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride.

CH4 + Cl2     $\underset{\to }{\text{Sunlight}}$      CH3Cl + HCl
CH3Cl+Cl2        $\underset{\to }{\text{Sunlight}}$       CH2Cl2 + HCl
CH2Cl2+Cl2      $\underset{\to }{\text{Sunlight}}$       CHCl3+HCl
CHCl3+Cl2      $\underset{\to }{\text{Sunlight}}$        CCl4+HCl

Polymerization reaction:
Alkenes and alkynes at higher temperatures under polymerization to form bigger molecules called as polymers.
Example:
Ethene at 400 °C undergoes polymerization to form polyehene.

nCH= CH2 → [-CH-CH- CH- CH2-]n

Cracking:
At higher temperatures in absence of air higher hydrocarbons breaking into smaller hydrocarbons. This process is called cracking.
Example:

C10H22          $\underset{\to }{\text{Cracking at 600 - 700}℃}$         C6H14  +  C4H8

## Activities & Simulations

Activity1
Indg.in has created a wonderful animation on "Combustion Reaction". This video gives the clear information about combustion of carbon and methane with oxygen and also explains combustible and non - combustible substances.
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Activity 2

Catalysis-ed.org has created an animated video on " Hydrogenation of Alkene ". This video explains about the addition reactions of alkenes. This video imprints how alkene and hydrogen molecules reacts on the surface of catalyst in the student mind.
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Activity 3
Weebly.com has created student interactive video on "Substitution Reaction of Methane". This activity explains how methane and chlorine molecules react in the presence of light. This is a student friendly animation because here student should select the reactant molecules and monitor the reaction. Student can analyses how the in increase in collision between molecules will increase the reaction.
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Activity 4
Myhometuition.com has created an interactive video on "Oxidation of Alcohols". This is a quiz based video. The questions are very sensible and help to increase the application knowledge of the students.
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