Chemical Properties of Carbon Compounds

Summary

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Carbon compounds undergo different types of chemical reactions.

Combustion:
All carbon compounds react with oxygen to produce heat and light along with carbon dioxide and water. This reaction of carbon with oxygen is called combustion.

Carbon Compound + Oxygen → Carbon dioxide + water+heat and light
CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2O + Heat and light.

  • Aliphatic compounds on combustion produce a non-sooty flame.
  • Aromatic compounds on combustion produce sooty flame.


Oxidation:
Alcohols undergo oxidation in presence of oxidising agents like alkaline potassium permanganate or acidified potassium dichromate to form carboxylic acids. 
Example: Ethyl alcohol on oxidation with alkaline potassium permanganate or acidified potassium dichromate gives acetic acid.



Addition reactions:
A chemical reaction is said to be an  addition reaction if two substances combine and form a third substance. Addition reaction is the one in which a molecule adds across a double bond or a triple bond. Unsaturated hydrocarbons undergo addition reactions. Hydrogenation reaction involves the addition of hydrogen to unsaturated hydrocarbons in presence of catalyst like nickel to form saturated hydrocarbons.

Example:

 

Substitution reaction:
A reaction in which an atom or group of atoms replaces another atom or group of atoms is called substitution reaction. Alkanes undergo substitution reactions. 
Example: 
chlorination of methane in presence of sunlight gives a mixture of products like methyl chloride, 
methylene chloride, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride.
 

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