Carbon compounds undergo different types of chemical reactions.
All carbon compounds react with oxygen to produce heat and light along with carbon dioxide and water. This reaction of carbon with oxygen is called combustion.
Carbon Compound + Oxygen →Carbon dioxide +water+heat and light
CH4 + 2O2 →CO2 +2H2O + Heat and light.
- Aliphatic compounds on combustion produce a non-sooty flame.
- Aromatic compounds on combustion produce sooty flame.
Alcohols undergo oxidation in presence of oxidising agents like alkaline potassium permanganate or acidified potassium dichromate to form carboxylic acids. Example: Ethyl alcohol on oxidation with alkaline potassium permanganate or acidified potassium dichromate gives acetic acid.
A chemical reaction is said to be an addition reaction if two substances combine and form a third substance. Addition reaction is the one in which a molecule adds across a double bond or a triple bond. Unsaturated hydrocarbons undergo addition reactions. Hydrogenation reaction involves the addition of hydrogen to unsaturated hydrocarbons in presence of catalyst like nickel to form saturated hydrocarbons.
A reaction in which an atom or group of atoms replaces another atom or group of atoms is called substitution reaction. Alkanes undergo substitution reactions. Example: chlorination of methane in presence of sunlight gives a mixture of products like methyl chloride, methylene chloride, chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride.