1. Summary

    Reproduction is mainly of two types – sexual and asexual.

    Sexual mode of reproduction involves fusion of the male and the female gametes to form seeds that eventually develop into new plants.

    Asexual mode of reproduction is the growth of a new plant from a part of the plant other than the seed.

    Modes of asexual reproduction in plants

    • vegetative propagation
    • budding
    • fragmentation
    • spore formation.

    Vegetative propagation is the production of new plants from the vegetative parts of the plant. Roots, stems and leaves are called the vegetative parts of a plant. Examples are given.
    • Bryophyllum propagates vegetatively by the formation of leaf buds on the margins of a leaf. When the buds come in contact with moist soil, each bud is capable of growing into a new plant.
    • Sweet potato and Dhalia are capable of producing young ones from their roots.

    Budding involves the growth of a small bulb-like projection called as bud. This bud grows and detaches itself from the parent cell to grow independently into a new organism. Yeast reproduces by budding. Yeast is used to bake a cake and to make dough. During budding, yeast respires and releases carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide released helps the dough to puff up and become spongy.

    Fragmentation involves the breaking down of filaments into fragments that grow into young ones. Algae reproduce by the method of fragmentation. Algae are green, thread-like plants that grow in stagnant water, ponds and lakes. They float on the surface of the water causing algal bloom.

    Spore formation is the method of forming reproductive structures called spores. Examples are given.
    • Ferns reproduce by releasing spores that germinate into young ones.
    • Fungus is a type of organism that grows on moist organic surfaces like leather shoes, moist walls, etc. The cotton-like white mass on bread formed by fungus is called a mould. Fungus reproduces by means of spores. Spores are covered by a protective hard coat. Spores can survive in extreme conditions because of the protective hard coat.
    • Moss also reproduces by spores.

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1 . about bulb
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