Reproduction is mainly of two types – sexual and asexual.
In sexual reproduction, the male and the female gametes fuse to form seeds that eventually develop into new plants. The seeds are formed inside the fruit. On the other hand, in asexual reproduction, a new plant is grown from any part of a plant other than the seeds.
There are different methods by which plants reproduce asexually. They are vegetative propagation, budding, fragmentation and spore formation. The vegetative parts of a plant are the roots, stems and leaves. When new plants are produced from these parts, the process is called vegetative propagation.
- A new rose plant can be grown by cutting off a part of the stem of an existing plant, with two or more nodes, and planting it in the ground.
- A node is a part of the stem from where a leaf grows.
- This stem grows into a new rose plant.
These are the buds of a bryophyllum plant. This plant has buds on the edges of its leaves. When the buds come in contact with moist soil, each bud is capable of growing into a new plant. Plants that use buds for vegetative propagation are potato, ginger and turmeric, amongst others.
Roots that store food are known as tubers. Such roots are the food storage tanks for the plants.
- When these tubers are detached from the parent plant and planted in the soil, they grow into a new plant.
- A plant that grows from a single root tuber, and then branches and rebranches, thereby covering a large area.
- A number of root tubers are produced by a single plant.
- Another plant that is grown from the tuber is the dahlia plant.
An ingredient used to bake a cake is a single celled plant known as yeast. Yeast reproduces by a process called budding. The small bulb-like projection coming out from the yeast is known as a bud. It detaches from the parent plant and develops into a new plant.
Algae, the simplest green plants, reproduce by an asexual method known as fragmentation.
An alga breaks up into smaller fragments. Each of these smaller fragments grows into a new independent alga.
The white mass and cottony like structure on the bread is called mould.
- It is a type of fungus that grows on moist organic surfaces like leather shoes and moist walls. This fungus reproduces by the means of spores.
- They can survive in extreme conditions like high temperature and low humidity.
- Ferns and moss are the example of the spore type of asexual reproduction.
Placing seeds on or in the ground for future growth is called sowing.
There are several ways by which plants produce offspring (young ones). These are mainly divided into two types – sexual and asexual. The sexual mode of reproduction involves the fusion of the male and the female gametes to form seeds that eventually develop into new plants. In the asexual mode of reproduction, a new plant is grown from a part of the plant other than the seeds.
There are different methods by which plants reproduce asexually. These are vegetative propagation, budding, fragmentation and spore formation.
Roots, stems and leaves are called the vegetative parts of a plant. When new plants are produced from these vegetative parts, the process is called vegetative propagation.
Bryophyllum propagates vegetatively by the formation of leaf buds on the margins of a leaf. When the buds come in contact with moist soil, each bud is capable of growing into a new plant.
Sweet potato and dhalia are capable of producing young ones from their roots.
Yeast reproduces by a process called budding. A small bulb-like projection that comes out from the yeast is known as a bud. This bud grows and detaches itself from the parent cell, and then grows independently as a new plant.
Yeast is used to bake a cake and to make dough. During budding, yeast respires and releases carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide released helps the dough to puff up and become spongy.
Algae are green, thread-like plants and grow in stagnant water, ponds and lakes. They float on the surface of the water.
Algae reproduce by a method known as fragmentation. The breaking down of filaments into fragments that grow into young ones is called fragmentation.
Ferns reproduce by releasing spores that germinate into young ones.
The cotton-like white mass on bread formed by fungus is called a mould. It is a type of fungus that grows on moist organic surfaces like leather shoes, moist walls, etc.
Fungus reproduces by means of spores. Spores are covered by a protective hard coat.
Spores can survive in extreme conditions like high temperature and low humidity because of the protective hard coat.
Moss also reproduces by spores