Covalent compounds have low melting and boiling points. For example, chloroform has a boiling point of 60 degree centigrade. Covalent compounds are non conductors of electricity this is due to the absence of free ions.
Sharing of electrons results in a covalent bond. A Lewis structure is a type of shorthand notation. The Lewis dot structures provide a picture of the bonding in molecules in terms of the shared pairs of electrons and the octet rule.
Locate a central atom.
Connect to other atoms with a single bond.
Determine the number of valence electrons.
Arrange the electrons for bond formation.
A shared electron pair is known as bond pair. A single covalent bond is formed by sharing a pair of electrons. Example, hydrogen molecule.
A double covalent bond is formed by sharing two pairs of electrons. For example, oxygen molecule.
A triple covalent bond is formed by sharing three pairs of electrons. For example, nitrogen molecule.
During the formation of a methane molecule, one electron of a carbon atom pairs with one electron of a hydrogen atom to form a bond pair. In this way, four bond pairs which are four C-H bonds, are produced.
Ethane exists as a gas.