CBSE - VIII

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Sexual Reproduction in Animals

Sexual Reproduction in Animals

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Amoeba and bacteria adopt the asexual mode of reproduction.Reproductive organs in humans produce gametes - eggs and sperms.A zygote is formed by the fusion of an egg and a sperm.The male reproductive organs include a pair of testes, two sperm ducts, and a penis.Sperms have a head, a middle piece and a tail.Sperms contain cell membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus.The female reproductive organs consist of a pair of ovaries, two oviducts, also called fallopian tubes, and the uterus.The ovary produces female gametes called ova or eggs.During pollination in plants, the male gamete fuses with the female gamete.The nuclei of the sperm and the egg fuse to form a zygote, and the process is called fertilisation.An organism inherits some characteristics from the egg and some from the sperm.Copulation is the act in which a male reproductive organ enters the female reproductive tract.

When male and female gametes unite outside the body, it is called external fertilisation.When fertilisation takes place inside the body, it is called internal fertilisation.When fertilisation takes place in a test tube, the offspring are called test tube babies.Fertilisation that takes place outside the human body is in vitro fertilisation.Super cell – the zygote, marks the beginning of a new individual.The zygote divides repeatedly to form a ball of cells, which, in turn, develops into tissues and organs of the body.The development of the embryo takes place in the mother’s uterine wall.All parts of the body start developing in an embryo, called foetus.

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