Agriculture is cultivating on large areas.Manure provides soil with nutrients.
The crop has been harvested last week and is left fallow to recover nutrients. Decomposition occurs in pits dumped with organic waste with the help of earthworms and bacteria.
Fertilisers are chemicals used to add minerals like potassium, phosphorus and nitrates to the soil.
The supply of water to crop is irrigation. The frequency of irrigation varies from season to season.
Manure increases the water retention capacity of soil, making it porous.
Plants contain nearly 90% water, and need water for proper development of flowers, fruits and seeds.
In dry conditions, seeds do not germinate.
Water protects plants from frostbite and hot air currents.
Water protects crops from hot air by evaporation, and traps cold breeze. Traditional methods of irrigation include moat, chain pump, dhekli and rahat, and need animal and human labour to draw water.
Wells, tube wells, ponds, lakes, rivers, dams and canals are sources of water. Sprinklers and drip systems are used when the soil is sandy or uneven. Pumps lift water and run on biogas or solar energy.
During summer, it is difficult for farmers to water crops. Weeds are removed manually before they produce flowers and seeds. Weeds are controlled by chemicals such as 2, 4-D, a systemic weedicide that kills weeds. Weedicides are poisonous to humans. Drip irrigation waters fruit plants and suits regions that have scarcity of water. Khurpi is used to remove weeds.
Farmers use weedicides in diluted form and they handle weedicides carefully by covering their nose and mouth while spraying. This stops their propagation in the field. Tilling the soil uproots the weeds.