Forestsplay a vital role in the preservation of the water cycle. Plants absorb water from the ground through their roots. Excess water from the plants is released into the atmosphere in the form of water vapour. This process is termed as transpiration. Plants release a huge amount of water into the atmosphere through transpiration.
A single apple tree looses as much as 30 litres of water in a day.
The water vapour rises in the atmosphere and condenses to form clouds. The clouds move to the land due to sea breeze and bring rain. This is called precipitation. Excess water seeps into the ground and reaches the ground water table.
By the process of transpiration and photosynthesis, forests maintain the temperature. During photosynthesis, plants take in to prepare food, and release and water vapour into the atmosphere.
The more the number of trees, the more the oxygen; and the less the number of trees, the more the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. A decrease in the number of trees results in global warming. Trees are the main source of oxygen.
Advantages of forests
Forests provide shelter for the animals and act as a protective camouflage. Forests provide shelter and food to the tribes living in the jungle.
Forest trees such as the bamboo are used in making furniture, baskets, ladders, etc. The teak tree is used to make furniture. The Neem tree is used for medicinal purposes. Forests also provide wood to make paper and other products such as gum, wax, rubber, and honey. There are major benefits from forests and so they should be protected.
Due to the rise in the population, trees are being cut down to obtain land for agriculture, industry and housing. This is known as deforestation. Due to this, many species become homeless.
Forests are also lost due to forest fires and floods. If trees are cut down, then the carbon dioxide level increases. This leads to an increase in the temperature of the earth’s surface, resulting in global warming.
If forests disappear, then the soil becomes very loose, resulting in soil erosion. The fertility of the soil is maintained when the roots hold the trees and prevent soil erosion by wind and water.