Reproduction is mainly of two types – sexual and asexual.
In sexual reproduction, the male and the female gametes fuse to form seeds that eventually develop into new plants. The seeds are formed inside the fruit. On the other hand, in asexual reproduction, a new plant is grown from any part of a plant other than the seeds.
There are different methods by which plants reproduce asexually. They are vegetative propagation, budding, fragmentation and spore formation. The vegetative parts of a plant are the roots, stems and leaves. When new plants are produced from these parts, the process is called vegetative propagation.
- A new rose plant can be grown by cutting off a part of the stem of an existing plant, with two or more nodes, and planting it in the ground.
- A node is a part of the stem from where a leaf grows.
- This stem grows into a new rose plant.
These are the buds of a bryophyllum plant. This plant has buds on the edges of its leaves. When the buds come in contact with moist soil, each bud is capable of growing into a new plant. Plants that use buds for vegetative propagation are potato, ginger and turmeric, amongst others.
Roots that store food are known as tubers. Such roots are the food storage tanks for the plants.
- When these tubers are detached from the parent plant and planted in the soil, they grow into a new plant.
- A plant that grows from a single root tuber, and then branches and rebranches, thereby covering a large area.
- A number of root tubers are produced by a single plant.
- Another plant that is grown from the tuber is the dahlia plant.
An ingredient used to bake a cake is a single celled plant known as yeast. Yeast reproduces by a process called budding. The small bulb-like projection coming out from the yeast is known as a bud. It detaches from the parent plant and develops into a new plant.
Algae, the simplest green plants, reproduce by an asexual method known as fragmentation.
An alga breaks up into smaller fragments. Each of these smaller fragments grows into a new independent alga.
The white mass and cottony like structure on the bread is called mould.
- It is a type of fungus that grows on moist organic surfaces like leather shoes and moist walls. This fungus reproduces by the means of spores.
- They can survive in extreme conditions like high temperature and low humidity.
- Ferns and moss are the example of the spore type of asexual reproduction.