CBSE - IX

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The Plant Kingdom

The Plant Kingdom

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Photosynthesisis the process by which plants use energy from the sun to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugar and release oxygen into the atmosphere.Criteria for plant classificationis based on features like: does the plant have distinct parts like stem, roots and leaves, do these parts have tissues that transport food and water, does the plant bear naked seeds and are these seeds enclosed in fruits.Eichler classified the plant kingdom into two sub-kingdoms Cryptogamae and Phanerogamae.Cryptogamaeincludes plants with hidden reproductive organs and plants do not bear flowers or seeds.Thallophyta are the simplest of plants that do not have a well-differentiated body design.Algae do not have leaves, stems or roots.Bryophyta are often called amphibians of the plant kingdom as they require both aquatic and terrestrial conditions for the completion of their

life cycle. Moss or Funaria belongs to the group Bryophyta.Bryophyta include Riccia and Marchantia. Pteridophyta include fern plants, in which the plant body is differentiated into stem, leaves and roots and also have naked embryos in the form of spores underneath the leaf.All plants that develop seeds and have well-formed stem, leaves and roots, belong to the sub-kingdom Phanerogamae.Gymnosperms include the plants with naked seeds.Angiosperms include the plants with flowers and seeds enclosed in fruits.Embryos in these seeds have 'seed leaves' called cotyledons. Cotyledons supply food to the growing embryos, when the seeds germinate.An amazing variety of flora and fauna are included in the chart-classification of plant kingdom.Differences between monocots and dicots plants includes the variation in seed, root and in leaves.

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