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Introduction to Motion

# Introduction to Motion

If a body does not change its position with respect to time and the surroundings, it is said to be at rest and else it is said to be in motion. Motion of objects can take place along one direction, two directions or three directions at a time. If an object moves along a straight path it is said to be linear or one-dimensional motion. If an object moves along two directions at a time like that of a ball hit for a sixer in a cricket field, it is two-dimensional. The haphazard motion of a honey bee can be three-dimensional.
The change in position of an object is termed displacement. It requires both direction and magnitude for its complete description and hence such physical quantities are called a vectors. The length of the path covered by a moving body is its distance and is independent of direction. Thus, such physical quantities are called scalars.
The rate of displacement of a body is its velocity and is measured in metre per second in international units. If a body has equal displacements in equal intervals of time however smaller the intervals may be, it is said to be

moving with uniform velocity. If the body is moving such
that it has unequal displacements in equal intervals or equal displacements in unequal intervals of time, it is said to be moving with non-uniform velocity. The ratio of total displacement to total time taken by the body gives its average velocity. The velocity of a body at a given instant is its instantaneous velocity.
The rate of distance covered by a body is its speed and is measured in metre per second in international units. If a body covers equal distances in equal intervals of time however small the intervals may be, it has uniform speed. If a body covers unequal distances in equal intervals or equal distances in unequal intervals then it is said be moving with non-uniform speed. The ratio of total distance to total time taken by the body gives its average speed. The speed of a body at a given instant is its instantaneous speed.
The rate of change in velocity is termed acceleration and is measured in metre per second square in the international system of units. The negative acceleration is termed retardation.