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Classification of Living Organisms

Classification of Living Organisms

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Aristotle, the Greek philosopher, classified animals based on whether they live on land, in water or in the air.Classification of living organismsis based on characteristics and divided the animals into groups and sub-groups.Charles Darwin put forward the idea of evolution in 1859, in his book,The Origin of Species.Ernst Haeckel, Robert Whittaker and Carl Woesehave tried to classify living organisms into broad categories, called kingdoms.Kingdom subgrouping into Phylum for animals or Division for plants, Class, Order, Family, Genus and Species is calledhierarchical classification.The scientific naming or nomenclature was introduced by Carolus Linnaeus. The method of naming of an organism with genus first and the species later is called binomial nomenclature.Conventions followed while writing scientific names includes the name of the genus should begin with a capital letter and the name of the species should begin with a small letter.

Monera includes prokaryotic cells which lack organized nucleus and membrane bound cell organelles. Monera are autotrophic, so they derive their nutrition by synthesizing their own food.Protistaare unicellular and the simplest form of eukaryotes and includes algae, diatoms and protozoans.Most fungiare multicellular and eukaryotic and include mushrooms, rhizopus and mucor.Both fungi and algae together live in a symbiotic relationship, calledlichensFungi decay dead plants and animals to derive their food, hence called saprophytes.Some fungi live in a mutual relationship with blue-green algae, this relationship is called symbiosis.Plantaeincludes all plants that are multicellular and eukaryotic with cell walls made of cellulose.Animaliaincludes all the animals that are multicellular, eukaryotic without cell walls.

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